台灣顎針蟻 Anochetus taiwaniensis (risii)



台灣顎針蟻分佈於中低海拔山區,常築巢於潮濕陰蔽的環境,會以土塊建築出特殊的球形蟻室、或是在淺層土中暫時性巢穴。



台灣顎針蟻屬雜食偏肉食蟻,在野外環境中主要以白蟻為主食,群落大小約數十至上百隻,屬單后制螞蟻。

外觀近似高山鋸針蟻,但兩者體型上和大顎張開方式差別明顯,台灣顎針蟻體長約6.5-7mm左右。頭型呈五角型。後頭凹陷。
頭部側緣中間凹陷,頭蓋光滑刻紋不明顯,前端無刻紋,著生短絲狀毛。頭楯前緣凹陷。觸角溝向後延伸至頭部一半。大顎呈線型鐮刀狀,前端明顯分叉,大顎亞前緣齒小齒狀。











頭部外型


幼蟲


蟻后


台灣顎針蟻和高山鋸針蟻一樣,大顎張開可超過180度,會使用大顎反彈地面跳起逃跑,並使用大顎與螫針獵食。




(圖中為A. taiwaniensis蟻后)


台灣已發現顎針蟻有以下3種
Anochetus risii Forel, 1900 
Anochetus subcoecus Forel, 1912 甲仙顎針蟻 
Anochetus taiwaniensis Terayama, 1989 臺灣顎針蟻 












膜翅目研究雜誌將Anochetus taiwaniensis列為Anochetus risii的同物異名

(Journal of Hymenoptera Research於2019/2月發佈)


Anochetus risii
Pic:AntWeb


Anochetus taiwaniensis
Pic:AntWeb


將A. risii和A. taiwaniensis工蟻圖像的詳細比較之後,我們注意到,這兩個物種在頭部、下顎、觸角、眼睛、背板、腹柄結和測量範圍有完全一致的字符。

Terayama(1989)指出A. taiwanensis與A. risii的區別在於“更寬的下骨和前者下背側內緣的小細齒”。但是,我們無法識別這些差異。

它們之間唯一的區別是A. taiwaniensis的前胸背板側面具有細小的的皺紋。因此,我們認為將A. taiwaniensis為列為A. rissi的同物異名較為妥當。





原文:
[In full-face view head longer than broad, posterior margin strongly concave. Mandibles linear, gradually broadened apically; inner margin with several denticles, gradually decreasing in size towards base; apical portion with three distinct teeth. Antennae 12-segmented; scapes surpassing to posterior corners of head by about 1/5 of its length. Eyes large, maximum diameter of eye wider than the basal width of mandibles.

In lateral view mesosoma slender. Pronotum weakly convex. Promesonotal suture shallowly impressed. Mesonotum weakly convex, sloping posteriorly. Metanotal groove deeply concave. Dorsum of propodeum almost straight, posterodorsal corner bluntly angled. Petiole cone-shaped and slightly inclined posteriorly, with a pointed dorsal apex, anterior margin weakly convex, posterior margin almost straight; subpetiolar process triangular, directed posteroventrally.

Frons longitudinally to obliquely striate posteriorly; frontal lobes and clypeus weakly striate, remainder of head smooth and shining. Mesosoma smooth and shining, propodeum and lower part of metapleuron obliquely rugose. Sometimes sides of pronotum weakly longitudinal rugose. Petiole smooth and shining, basal area weakly striate. Gaster smooth and shining. Body dorsum with abundant erect to suberect hairs and dense decumbent pubescence; scapes and tibiae with scattered suberect hairs and dense decumbent pubescence. Body blackish brown; antennae and legs yellowish brown.

Recognition and discussion
After detailed comparison of type worker images of A. risii (CASENT0907411) and A. taiwaniensis (CASENT0902440 & CASENT0915167), we noticed that both species have completely consistent characters in head, mandibles, antennae, eyes, mesosoma, petiole and measurement range. Terayama (1989) pointed out that A. taiwanensis is distinguished from A. risii by “broader mandibular shafts and small denticles of the dorsal inner margin of the mandible in the former”. However, we are unable to recognize these differences. The only difference between them is that A. taiwaniensis has the pronotum weakly rugose laterally. Consequently, we consider it safe to propose A. taiwaniensis as a junior synonym of A. rissi here.

Distribution
Known from Vietnam, Indonesia and Southern China.]







參考資料:
http://taibif.tw

http://taieol.tw/pages/97237http://www.antcat.org/catalog/430939
https://hol.osu.edu/index.html?id=25318
http://www.antwiki.org/wiki/Anochetus_taiwaniensis




★文中(學名/內容)僅供參考,切勿作為決定憑據。
★本網站內容版權所有,未獲授權請勿轉載。


張貼留言

0 留言